Classification of sites

The localities are classified using a double terminology: English and Greek or Latin, but the time slices use only the Latin/Greek variant


  • settlement: nucleated habitation, regardless of size or status
  • village : settlement under the political authority of another local polity (civil or military)
  • town: a large ‘village’ with urban features, such as monuments (bath house(s), theatre(s), …)
  • city : a settlement with formal local autonomy officially recognized by a larger polity
  • road station: a small stopping place along a route with limited facilities mainly for travellers
  • port
  • religious
  • sanctuary/temple
  • military: any permanent military basis
  • camp : large permanent military basis
  • fortress: smaller permanent camp


  • polis: an autonomous local polity (city) in the Greek world
  • oppidum: a pre-Roman non-Greek city, usually fortified
  • vicus: a usually smaller settlement, although sometimes with urban amenities under the authority of a local polity or a permanent military camp
  • cannabae: similar to a vicus, but adjacent to a military camp
  • komè: a village in the Greek world
  • demos: a country district (often plus village) in the Greek world (particularly Attica)
  • pagus: a country district in Italy and the Latin provinces
  • Caput civitatis: capital of a civitas
  • municipium latinum: a privileged local polity with Roman(-type) institutions. Most of the municipes do not have Roman citizenship, but have conubium et commercium, i.e. they have the right to legally marry a Roman citizen and to do business with Roman citizens. The magistrates receive full Roman citizenship.
  • Municipium (civium Romanorum): a local polity with full Roman citizenship. Originally only in Italy.
  • colonia (civium Romanorum): a local polity with Roman institutions whose citizens have full Roman citizenship. Historically a colonia was a new settlement by Roman citizens who were allowed to retain their citizenship status. During the early empire colonia became an honorary title given also to existing cities.
  • Colonia Latina : originally a new settlement whose settlers received ‘Latin rights’ but not full Roman citizenship. Since the second century BCE this type of coloniae fell into disuse. After the Social War coloniae latinae in Italy received the status of municipium civium Romanorum. It was revived in the provinces in the early empire as a more prestigious variant of the municipium latinum.
  • Templum
  • Castrum: a large (usually legionary) camp
  • Castellum: a smaller (usually auxiliary) fort